Gerelateerde afbeelding

Naast de genoemde vormen en uitingen van macht en machtsuitoefening wordt de kwaliteit van de macht ook medebepaald door overtuigingsgerichtheid of open argumentatie in een relatie tussen A en P. Dit wordt wel als ‘non-macht’ aangeduid, hetgeen tot uitdrukking komt in de volgende uitspraken: Als hij en ik in dagelijkse omstandigheden het niet eens zijn over wat er gebeuren moet, dan heeft ieder van ons een even grote kans zijn mening aanvaard te krijgen. Hij laat zich in dagelijkse omstandigheden door mij overtuigen van mijn standpunt als ik betere argumenten kan aanvoeren dan hij. Zijn mensen doen in dagelijkse omstandigheden wat hij zegt, omdat hij uitlegt waarom iets moet gebeuren.
Het is nu veeleer zo dat de inhoud van de communicatie de uitkomst van het beïnvloedingsproces bepaalt. Zowel de één (A) als de ander (P) is bereid zich te laten overtuigen (non-machtrelatie). In allerlei vormen van democratisch overleg is dit aan de orde (uitgaande van principiële gelijkheid).
Invloed naar boven en invloed naar buiten Naast de hiervoor onderscheiden bronnen respectievelijk uitingen van macht blijkt de invloed die een manager binnen de organisatie en buiten zijn eigen organisatieonderdeel heeft onder meer uit de volgende uitspraken: Hij heeft in dagelijkse omstandigheden veel kantoorruimte almere invloed op wat er in de niveaus boven hem gebeurt. Hij heeft in dagelijkse omstandigheden goed gehoor bij de topleiding.
Vooral deskundigheidsmacht en identificatiemacht zijn naast overtuigingskracht dan van belang; sanctiemacht en formele macht zijn hier uiteraard beperkt.
Invloed naar buiten duidt op invloed die iemand heeft buiten de eigen organisatie. Dit komt onder meer tot uitdrukking in de volgende uitspraken: Hij zorgt ervoor dat in dagelijkse omstandigheden bepaalde belangrijke dingen buiten de organisatie gerealiseerd kunnen worden. In relaties met mensen buiten de eigen organisatie heeft hij in dagelijkse omstandigheden veel in te brengen.
Bevindingen uit onderzoek (Mulder) In crisisomstandigheden manifesteert zich een leiderschap met grote machtsafstand, vooral deskundigheidsmacht(afstand) in combinatie met sanctiemacht en formele macht. In noncrisissituaties blijkt mild leiderschap te overheersen, met een kleine machtsafstand tussen leider en medewerkers, met overtuigingsprocessen in open argumentatie en persoonlijke relaties. Het hardere, machtige leiderschap wordt in crises ook meer gewaardeerd als een goed leiderschap; in non-crisissituaties wordt het milde, kleinemachtsafstandleiderschap als goed beoordeeld.

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